To prepare for the AP Biology exam coming up, do the questions below and review the respective topic in the textbook if needed. These are all topics that are most likely to show up on the exam.
At least your lab days are over, right?
Draw out the process of cellular respiration. Include the name and location of each step, as well as inputs and outputs.
How is fermentation different from cellular respiration? Why is fermentation much less efficient?
How is cellular respiration in prokaryotes different from eukaryotes?
Name several different types of membrane proteins and their functions.
Let’s focus more on the hydrogen (H+) pumps and sodium-potassium pumps. Name an example in the body where each is used and what its purpose is. Explain how each works.
What would happen if the gene for all the H+ pumps was mutated/dysfunctional?
How do operons work and what is their purpose/advantage? Use the lac operon as an example to explain.
What is the difference between the lac operon and trp operon?
Explain positive and negative control with the lac operon.
Do operons exist in prokaryotes, eukaryotes, or both?
How does regulation of gene expression work in eukaryotes? Name some specific mechanisms.
How can a heart cell be completely different from a skin cell, even though they both have the same exact copy of DNA?
Explain signal transduction.
How do GPCRs work? You can draw out a diagram as your answer if you’d like.
Most of the time, which phase are cells in?
List all the differences between mitosis and meiosis.
In most diagrams of chromosomes, we see them as X-shaped. Is an X-shaped chromosome replicated or unreplicated?
What is recombination frequency and how is it computed?
What happens to the dihybrid genotype ratios of offspring if those two genes are linked? For instance, let’s say the parents’ genotypes are Rrbb and RrBb.
What is a linkage map and how is it created?
Why are X-linked genes more common than Y-linked genes? What inheritance pattern would X-linked recessive genes typically show?
What are Mendel’s two laws of genetics? What is the difference between the two?
What is a testcross and when would you use it?
Define the following terms: pleiotropy, multiple alleles, and polygenic inheritance.
How do you read and interpret a pedigree? What's the purpose of one?
The answers to all these questions will be posted here later this week. Happy studying, you are almost at the finish line!